The collection holds rich materials from the earliest beginnings of the settlement of the eastern coast of the Adriatic, with most of the findings, however, pertaining to the period of the New Stone Age, or the Neolithic.
The most valuable finds were provided by research into the cave of Pelješac called Gudnja above Ston. The many and diverse materials from the deep cultural strata of Gudnja were formed over a long span of time, from the early Neolithic to the Middle Bronze Age. The Neolithic strata are represented in all of their phases – Early Neolithic – Impresso culture, Middle Neolithic – Gudnja and Vela Luka cultures and Late Neolithic – the Hvar-Lisičići culture, or in terms of the timeline, throughout the whole of the 6th and 5th millennia BC. However, the most important part of the cultural contents is the ceramic finds of the Middle Neolithic with their fine geometrical ornamentation, mostly in red against a light background, because of which this phase of the Neolithic is sometimes called Gudnja Culture.
As well as the finds from Gudnja, this collection also contains many disparate finds, above all of various forms of stone axes found in the wider area from Konaavle to Korčula island.